High-tech applications that require exceptional strength will use heat-resistant fabrics. Workers in metals, steel and aluminum industries are frequently exposed to large amounts of molten metallic splatter. Flame retardant clothing should be worn over other clothing. They are also used to make protective clothing and uniforms for firefighters. These fabrics are made from warp yarns which are a mix of nylon, cotton, and heat-resistant fibres.
Types of heat resistant fibers
Aramid, a strong synthetic fiber, is part of the nylon family. These are polyamides made from aromatic amines or acids. Aramid fiber is a good substitute for asbestos. It has excellent heat resistance and does not melt or ignite under normal oxygen levels. Aramid yarns can be a blessing for military personnel who are involved in dangerous combat operations. They resist fire up to 500°C, which prevents body burns.
Para-aramid is one the most well-known high performance fibers. These fibers are highly resistant to impact and can be used in high-tech areas such as aerospace and military applications. They can also be used to make ballistic armor and puncture-resistant bicycle tires. Aramid can be blended with other fibers for industries that don't require high tensile strength.
Learn about Heaterk's fire-resistant Kevlar fiberglass fabric >>
Carbon fiber (acrylonitrile- and pitch-based):
Carbonizing precursor fibers made from pitch, polyacrylonitrile(PAN), or rayon is how carbon fibers are created. These fibers are extremely thin and consist mainly of carbon atoms. Their diameter is approximately 0.005-0.010mm. Carbon fiber is widely used for making clothing for civil engineering, military and motorsports.
Carbon precursor fibers:
Carbon precursor fiber, a type of flame-retardant fibre, is made from modified acrylic fiber by pyrolysis and/or carbonization. These fibers are made from partially carbonized fibers and are carbonized in high temperatures at static conditions to become carbon or graphite. They cannot be made into fibers from carbon, so they are created by extruding filaments of precursor materials. Then, a carbonization process converts the filaments to carbon. Different carbon filaments and precursor materials can be used depending on the product properties.
These fibers are fragile and prone to abrasion. They are usually mixed with para-aramid fiber in a 50-50 mix to make them strong and durable. The processing problems mean that the precursor fibers must be converted to fabric form, and then carbonized to create the final product. Rayon and acrylic are both common precursors for carbon fibers.
Polyphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO):
PBO fiber is a brand new entry to the performance fiber market. They are extremely resistant to ignition, have low heat release rates, and emit very little smoke. It is twice as strong and has the same thermal properties as aramid fibers. These fibers have good dimensional stability and low shrinkage when subjected to high temperatures. These fibers are suitable for use in aerospace, military, and electrical insulation. The textile industry's use of PBO fibers is still in its infancy.
Glass is an organic substance and the oldest high performance fiber. Glass was the first man-made fibers. The technique of heating glass to make thin fibers has been used for thousands of years. Their use in the textile industry, despite their existence and continued use, is still relatively new. It is used in both homes and industry as an insulation material in mats. Glass fibers are typically made from silica, aluminum oxide, barium oxide and calcium oxide.
Fiberglass is resistant to dirt and doesn't shrink. It also doesn't swell or shrink when exposed to sunlight. Other fibers, such as those that are weaker and bleached, can be affected by the sun. Some glass fibers can withstand heat up to 7200°C. Glass fibers can be used for electrical insulation, home decoration and to make clothing and other apparel.
Learn about Heaterk's Insulating Fiberglass Needle Felt >>
Polybenzimidazole, also known as PBI, is a fiber that has a high melting point. It is resistant to heat and does not ignite easily due to its outstanding chemical and thermal stability. This fiber is made up of a condensed aromatic structure, which provides high heat resistance. The polymer's structure further enhances the fiber's capacity. PBI fibers can be used in high-performance protective clothing, such as protective suits for firefighters, astronauts, spacesuits, protection gloves, racing suits, weld suits, and woven packaging.
This fiber can be blended with carbon and aramid fibers and used in many textile equipment. PBI fibers have an orange color that can't be bleached. PBI fibers are also very costly in terms of raw materials and manufacturing costs.
Melamine fiber, a synthetic polymer made up of 50% cross-linked melamine monomer, is a polymer that is approximately 50% by weight. These fibers are extremely stable due to their cross-linked structure, low thermal conductivity and low thermal conductivity. The fiber is heat resistant and has excellent insulation properties in direct flame applications. It is hard to process because it has variable staple lengths and denier, low tensile strength, and has low tensile strengths. It is therefore often mixed with stronger fibers like aramid.
Go to Heaterk's product center to learn more about heat resistant fibers fabric